Contents

Compounds

Two stems (X and Y) can be concatenated to form a compound stem:

 

S = X-Y

 

Depending on how a compound is analysed different meanings occurs.

 

The main categories are noun, adverbal and verbal compunds.

Noun Compounds

There are 4 principal modes of analysing noun compounds:

 

Co-ordinative (dvandva, dv)

Descriptive (karmadhāraya, kdh)

Determinative (tatpuruṣa, tp)

Exocentric (bahuvrīhi, bv).

 

By some kdh is considered a tp.

 

S = X-Y is analysed by one of the following rules:

 

dv

X Y ca ‘X and Y’

(1)

 

 

 

kdh

Y as X

(2a)

 

Y which is X

(2b)

 

Y which is as X

(2c)

 

 

 

tp

Y AX ‘Y with respect to X’

(3a)

 

Y IX ‘Y with X’

(3b)

 

Y DX ‘Y to/through X’

(3c)

 

Y GX ‘Y of X’

(3d)

 

Y AbX ‘Y from X’

(3e)

 

Y LX ‘Y in/on/at X’

(3f)

 

 

 

bv

Gya Y [yathā] X asti

(4a)

 

‘whose Y is [like] X’

 

 

Gya LY [yathā] X asti

(4b)

 

‘in whose Y is [like] X’

 

 

Iya Y [yathā] X asti

(4c)

 

‘by whom Y is [like] X’

 

Note:

 

A compound can be part of a bigger compound.

(5)

 

dv:

In dv the gender is shown by Y and the number shown denotes all persons/things refered to.

(6)

When a dv is perceived as a whole it is put in n/sg.

(7)

There exists dv with Adj meaning.

(8)

 

tp:

In tp, a with Adj meaning sometimes occurs as Y, with the following changes:

 

 

Sometimes

 

Y = a

(9)

 

Y=°Ă

Y = t

(10)

 

2K=ā ai N

2K = a

(11)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In a tp X may have an E attached to it.

(12)

 

bv:

A bv always refers to something beyond itself.

(13)

In a bv Y is always a subst.

(14)

The gender of Y in a bv is changed to fit that which it refers to (sometimes by adding ka ).

(15)

 

Examples:

 

ācārya-śiṣyau

‘the teacher and pupil’

(1 & 6)

ācārya-śiṣyāḥ

‘theacher[s] and pupil[s]’

(1 & 6)

vṛtta-pīna

‘round and fat’

(1 & 8)

nīca-karman

‘bad deed’

(2b)

pāda-padma

‘foot lotus’

(2c)

svarga-patita

‘fallen from heaven’

(3e)

vana-vāsin

‘forrest dweller’

(3e)

viśva-jit

‘all-conquering’

(3d & 10)

manasi-ja

‘born in thought’

(3e, 11 & 12)

mokṣa-kāma

‘whose wish is liberation’

(4a & 13)

mṛta-bhartṛkā

‘whose husband is dead’

(4a, 13 & 15)

 

An example of a real gargantuan compund which uses (5) over and over again is:

 

yadroṣavibhramavivṛttakaṭākṣapātasambhrāntanakramakara

 

tp (3d):

yad-roṣa

 

‘his rage’

tp (3a):

yadroṣa-vibhrama

 

‘his rage violently’

tp (3a):

yadroṣavibhrama-vivṛtta

 

‘his rage violently distorted’

tp (2b):

kaṭa-akṣa

 

‘side glance’

kdh (2b):

yadroṣavibhramavivṛtta-kaṭākṣa

 

‘of his rage violently distorted side glances’

tp (3d):

yadroṣavibhramavivṛttakaṭâkṣa-pāta

 

‘the falling of his rage violently distorted side glances’

tp (3b):

yadroṣavibhramavivṛttakaṭâkṣapāta-sambhrānta

 

‘agitated by the falling of his rage violently distorted side glances’

dv:

nakra-makara

 

‘crocodile and shark’

bv (4a):

yadroṣavibhramavivṛttakaṭâkṣapātasambhrānta-nakramakara

 

‘whose crocodiles and sharks are agitated by the falling of his rage violently distorted side glances’

Adverbal Compunds

Adv compounds (avyayībhāva),

 

always have an indeclinable particle or an Adv as X

(16)

are always put in n/sg/A.

(17)

 

Example:

 

yathā-ruci

‘to taste’

(16 & 17)

sa-bhayam

‘with fear’

(16 & 17)

 

Verbal Compunds

The preverbs below are often put first in a S as X with a form of V as Y. They do not always change the meaning of V, but when they do, they do it along the following lines:

 

ati

over, beyond, past; too, extremely, very

adhi

over, on

anu

along, after

antar

in between, etc. [rare]

apa

away, off

api

near to, at, on

abhi

to, unto, toward

ava

down, from, away

ā

hither, unto

ud

up, up forth, forth; out

upa

to, unto

ni

down, into

nis

out, away from, without, lacking

parā

away, off, aside, etc.

pari

around

pra

before, forward

prati

against, back

vi

asunder, away

sa

with, having

sam

together

su

well, fair, good, very etc; easily, easy

dus

ill, bad, evil, mis- etc; difficult to

 

A good example on how they alter the meaning of a root is dru.

 

A preverb can be set before a verb that already has a preverb bringing further modification to the meaning. The preverb closest to the verb is the main one.

 

Example:

 

 

dru

run

pra-

dru

rush

vi-pra-

dru

run asunder

saṃ-pra-

dru

run away, flee

 

Note:

An augment is put between the preverbs and the .