
R is the process of puting a √ with some changes before itself and it occurs in ^{III}Pr,
^{R}Ao, Pf, Ds and Int.
Notation
As usual,
√ = [^{1}K]^{ √}A[^{2}K]
and,
^{R}√

reduplicated root,

^{R}K

consonant in the reduplicated root,

^{R}A

vowel of the reduplicated root,

^{1:1}K

the first K of ^{1}K,

^{2:1}K

the second K of ^{1}K

Two √forms has to be noted:
√ = ^{1}K^{ √}A[^{2}K]
^{R}√√ = ^{R}K ^{R}A ^{1}K^{ √}A[^{2}K].

(1)

√ = ^{√}A[^{2}K]
^{R}√√ = ^{R}A ^{R}K^{ √}A[^{2}K].

(2)

^{R}K
√ = ^{1}K^{
√}A[^{2}K]
^{1}K = Ś^{¬O:2:1}K

>

^{ *R}K = ^{2:1}K

(3)

^{1}K = ^{Vl: 1:1}K_{i} K

>

^{ *R}K = ^{Pl:1:1}K_{i}

(4)

otherwise,
^{*R}K = ^{H}K_{i}

>

^{ R}K = ^{¬H}K_{i}

(6)

otherwise,
√ = ^{√}A[^{2}K]
Except for a
few √ in Ds and two √ in Int (i, S =
īyāya; ṛ, S = alar ) this
commonly occurs only in Pf.
^{III:R}A is formed as:
^{√}A = ṝ̆

>

^{III:R}A = i

(9)

otherwise,
^{Ao:R}A is
formed as:
^{√}A = ū̆

>

^{Ao:R}A = ū

(11)

otherwise,
^{√}A is shortened so that ^{R}A ^{1}K is prodically
long and ^{√}A[^{2}K]
short (– ∪)

(13)

√
= ^{1}K^{ √}A[^{2}K]
^{√}A = ṝ̆

>

^{Pf:R}A = a

(14)

√ = ^{1}K^{ δ}A

>

^{Pf:R}A = a

(15)

otherwise,
√ = ^{√}A[^{2}K]
√ which are prodically
long use the periphrastic Pf or:

(17)

√ = a
^{σ}K

>

^{R}S = ā ^{σ}K

(18a)

√ = a
^{δ}K

>

^{R}S = ān ^{δ}K

(18b)

√ = i
^{σ}K

>

^{W:R}S = ī ^{σ}K

(19a)



^{S:R}S = iye ^{σ}K

(19b)

√ = u
^{σ}K

>

^{W:R}S = ū ^{σ}K

(20a)



^{S:R}S = uvo ^{σ}K

(20b)

√ = ṛ
^{σ}K

>

^{R}S = ān ^{σ}K

(21)

^{Ds:R}A is formed as:
^{√}A = ū̆ ∨ (Ds5)

>

^{Ds:R}A = u

(22)

otherwise,
^{√}A = ā̆ ∨ ṝ̆

>

^{Int:R}A = ā

(24)

^{√}A = ī̆

>

^{Int:R}A = e

(25)

^{√}A = ū̆

>

^{Int:R}A = o

(26)

Examples
Rstems






√

^{III}Pr

^{R}Ao

Pf

Ds

Int

dā ‘give’

dadā°

adīda°

dadā°

didā°

dādā°

hu ‘sacrifice’

juho°

ajūha°

juhā°

juhū°

johav°

bhū ‘become’



abībha°

babhū°

bubhū°

bobhav°

budh ‘awaken’



abūbudh°

bubudh°

bibādh°

bābadh

jñā ‘know’





jajñā°

jijñā°

jājñā°

kṛ ‘do’



acīkar°

cakār°

cikīr°

(karikṛ°)


